Understanding Evidence and Procedures in Land Surveys
June 6, 2023
By: Cook Surveying Engineer

Land surveys play a crucial role in establishing property boundaries, resolving disputes, and ensuring accurate land records. When conducting a land survey, surveyors follow specific evidence and procedures to determine boundary lines and gather the necessary data. In this article, we will delve into the importance of evidence and the procedures involved in land surveys.

The Role of Evidence in Land Surveys

Evidence serves as the foundation for establishing accurate boundary lines in land surveys. Surveyors rely on various types of evidence to determine the location and extent of a property. Here are some key forms of evidence commonly used:

  1. Deeds and Land Records: Deeds are legal documents that transfer ownership of a property from one party to another. Surveyors carefully review deeds to understand property descriptions, boundaries, and any pertinent easements or restrictions.
  2. Monuments and Markers: Monuments and markers are physical objects placed on or near a property’s boundary lines. These can include iron pins, stones, or concrete markers. Surveyors locate and measure these markers to gather evidence for accurate boundary determination.
  3. Historical Maps and Surveys: Historical maps and surveys provide valuable information about previous land divisions, landmarks, and property boundaries. Surveyors may analyze old maps and surveys to understand the historical context and changes in property boundaries over time.
  4. Adjoining Surveys: Surveyors may review neighboring surveys to establish consistent boundary lines between adjacent properties. This helps ensure that boundaries align properly and potential conflicts are resolved.

Procedures in Land Surveys

Land surveys follow specific procedures to ensure accuracy and consistency. Surveyors adhere to professional standards and guidelines to conduct surveys effectively. Here are some common procedures involved in land surveys:

  1. Research and Preparation: Prior to conducting the survey, surveyors thoroughly research property records, deeds, and historical documents. They gather all relevant information to understand the context and scope of the survey.
  2. Field Work: The fieldwork phase involves physically measuring and documenting the property boundaries. Surveyors utilize advanced surveying instruments, such as total stations or GPS receivers, to obtain precise measurements and establish control points.
  3. Data Analysis and Calculation: After collecting field data, surveyors analyze the measurements, deed descriptions, and other evidence. They perform calculations to determine boundary lines, angles, and areas accurately. This step ensures that the survey results are reliable and consistent.
  4. Boundary Marking: Once the boundaries are determined, surveyors may mark the property lines with physical markers or flags. These markers serve as reference points for property owners and future surveys.
  5. Survey Report and Documentation: Finally, surveyors prepare a comprehensive report that includes detailed findings, boundary descriptions, maps, and any relevant notes or explanations. This report serves as an official document that property owners can refer to for legal or development purposes.

Importance of Professional Land Surveyors

It’s crucial to engage the services of a professional land surveyor when dealing with property boundaries and surveys. Professional surveyors possess the knowledge, expertise, and understanding of evidence and procedures required to conduct accurate surveys. They ensure compliance with legal and industry standards and provide reliable results that can withstand scrutiny.

By relying on professional land surveyors, property owners can gain peace of mind, establish clear boundaries, and resolve any disputes or discrepancies effectively.

For more information about land surveys and the importance of professional surveyors, consider visiting the following external resources:


Evidence and procedures are fundamental components of land surveys. Through the careful analysis of evidence and adherence to established procedures, professional surveyors accurately determine property boundaries and provide essential information for property owners, developers, and other stakeholders. When it comes to land surveys, trust the expertise of professional surveyors to ensure accuracy and legal compliance.

If you require a land survey or have questions about the surveying process, contact us at Cook Surveying. Our team of experienced surveyors is ready to assist you with your land surveying needs.

Have any questions, give us a call here at Cook Surveying & Associates. (801) 364-4051

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